Before getting to know the product
The paddy irrigation automation system is a product of Tosee Pouyan e Arvand Company, the initial version of which was designed and built in 2017. This system can control the water level of the paddy field in both fixed and intermittent modes with Farmino Android application and show you the current water level of the paddy field online, wherever you are in the world. The method of intermittent irrigation of paddy fields is defined in such a way that after flooding the land, irrigation is stopped and until the land reaches the stage of cracking, irrigation is not done again. The intermittent irrigation method is based on these two facts that rice can grow well in moisture without waterlogging and as long as the soil moisture does not fall below 80% of saturation, its yield will not decrease. The advantages of this method are saving water consumption, reducing problems caused by lack of drainage, soil ventilation, and the release of toxic gases from the root area. Under these conditions, not only the yield does not decrease, but the rice has a good growth and its seeds and stalks have a good appearance quality without the slightest damage.
The effect of periodic irrigation on the vegetative growth of rice makes the plant more resistant to dormancy at the end of the season and facilitates mechanized harvesting. The direct effect of intermittent droughts on the rice plant is the production of the hormone abscisic acid or ABA in the root. ABA hormone production causes growth reduction The height of the plant (vegetative growth) and the greater resistance of the plant to drought stress are possible at the end of the season and reduce the risk of reducing rice yield due to drought stress. By implementing periodic irrigation method in paddy fields, 30% less water is consumed for rice production in the country and increases the efficiency of agricultural water consumption. The amount of water saved can be used in cultivating more land to increase rice production or in other sectors. Increasing productivity in water shortage conditions, while maintaining a greater amount of water resources in reservoirs, reduces the risk of drought at the end of the rice irrigation season due to the depletion of water in the source, and as a result, reduces the financial loss to farmers due to the depletion of irrigation water. In order to avoid any kind of drought stress at the beginning of growth, the proper establishment of seedlings and to prevent the growth of weeds, the surface of the field is kept flooded for two weeks after planting. The appropriate water height is 5 cm (3-7 cm) based on the recommendations of the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). After this period, periodic irrigation can be done. The main challenge is the measurement The amount of unsaturated moisture in the depth of the rice root zone is determined by the farmer. Moisture measurement requires the use of laboratory methods such as the weight method or the use of measuring equipment in the paddy field. The use of the laboratory method is not desirable for most farmers due to the need for time and spending money. The use of on-site measuring equipment is not well received by farmers due to the use of expensive moisture sensors and the need for high initial costs. The IRRI grid well method simplifies the understanding of the intermittent irrigation process for farmers. However, it has some problems. Visiting the wells requires a workforce to visit them with a regular schedule and measure the depth of the water inside with a ruler. This work, while adding a new activity to rice farming activities, requires spending more time and money to install it using the traditional flooding method. Therefore, a group of farmers, who usually have enough water at their disposal, are less willing to do so. The second problem is seen with the growth of the rice plant. The growth of the plant makes it difficult to move in the paddy fields and practically makes it impossible to access the well and read the water depth inside the well. This problem is a limiting factor for farmers who have little water and have to manage small plots in terms of irrigation.
Paddy field irrigation automation device
The automation device for periodic irrigation of paddy fields completes the IRRI mesh well method and solves the two main challenges facing the periodic rice irrigation method. This system provides the possibility of remote irrigation management by sending water depth information in the well to the farmer's cell phone in multi language language. Also, by connecting electric pumps, it eliminates the need for the farmer to be constantly present for irrigation, and it causes high flexibility and accuracy in the time of re-irrigation. The periodic irrigation automation device of paddy fields is able to turn on the pump and irrigate automatically with the previous order of the farmer. Figure 2 shows the general scheme of the periodic irrigation automation device of paddy fields and the diagram of how it interacts with the paddy field and the rice farmer. In this system, the IRRI mesh well is equipped with water level measurement equipment and data transmission over the mobile phone network (GSM). The system works with a solar energy source and controls the water pump. The rice farmer will be able to adjust the irrigation process only by determining the water level above and below the paddy soil (water level 1 and 2 in Figure 3). By setting the two values equal, the rice farmer has the possibility of flood irrigation up to the specified depth. In this way, the automation device for periodic irrigation of paddy fields eliminates the need to go to the well and the presence of labor in the periodic irrigation method and helps to promote this method. The rice farmer will be able to control the system and check the water depth in the rice field at any time and anywhere in the world if he has access to a mobile phone. Also, this device makes it possible to measure the volume of paddy irrigation water, check the changes in water infiltration rate, and measure the permeability coefficient of the hard layer (Hard Pan).
A nature-friendly, renewable energy source
The electrical energy of the periodic irrigation automation device of paddy fields is supplied by sunlight. Supplying energy to the device in paddy fields by means of wiring is impossible, so the device must be able to provide the energy it needs on site. Energy supply is provided by a set of solar cells, batteries and charge control electronics. A 20 W solar cell complex, along with 8800 mAh ion-lithium batteries and a charge control circuit with the ability to prevent overcharging and control the charging speed of 10 W were used for the device. This set can keep the system on for up to 72 hours in completely cloudy conditions (without charging from the solar panel) and in spite of direct sunlight, the system can be fully charged in 14 hours. Using the sleep algorithm in programming reduced unnecessary energy consumption, increased battery life, and continued energy availability. The sleep algorithm turns off the parts that don't need constant activity and saves energy by calling them when needed.